What is Unicast routing protocol?

Hello Friends, In this blog post(What is Unicast routing protocol) I am going to let you know about the Unicast routing protocol.

A unicast routing protocol is a combination of governing rules and procedures that help routers inform each other in case of any changes.

In this blog post(What is Unicast routing protocol) we are going to cover What is Unicast routing protocols, What is Unicast and Multicast routing protocols,…

… Which is a common unicast routing protocol used in a 3-tier topology, Which protocol uses multicast routing, What is Unicast routing.|What is Unicast routing protocol|

What are Unicast routing protocols?

Before knowing the unicast protocols’ names first see the unicast routing, unicast routing is a process where the data traffic is unicasted from a source to a destination over the network.|What is Unicast routing protocol|

This unicast traffic is destined for a unique path or address. An example of unicast routing protocols is IP(Internet protocol) and IPX(Internet packet exchange).

What are Unicast and Multicast routing protocols?

In unicast routing protocols, the data packet or IP packets to a single recipient, and in multicasting routing the IP packets are sent to a group of hosts over a network.

Which is a common unicast routing protocol used in a 3-tier topology?

The transmission control protocol is the most common unicast protocol which is used in a 3-tier topology.

It is a connection-oriented protocol that relies on the acknowledgment sent from the receiver.

Which protocol uses multicast routing?

There may be several protocols that support the multicast routing technique.

They are named Distance vector multicast routing protocol(DVMRP), Protocol independent multicast(PIM), and Multicast open shortest path first(MOSPF).

It also permits routers to share whatever they know about the internet or their neighborhood.

A unicast routing protocol may also be classified as an intradomain and interdomain routing protocol.

popular unicast routing protocols
Fig 1 Popular Unicast routing protocol: What is Unicast routing protocol

RIP(Routing information protocol) Unicast Routing Protocol:

RIP is an intradomain routing protocol. It is based on distance vector routing. It implements distance vector routing directly with some considerations-

We deal with routers and networks(links) in an autonomous system. The network does not have a routing table. In contrast, routers have it.

The destination in a routing table is a network. It means that the first column specifies a network address.

RIP uses the metric. The distance can be defined as the number of networks(links). That is why the metric in RIP is known as a hop count.

RIP defines infinity as 16, which means that any route in an autonomous system using RIP can not have more than 15 hops.

The next-node column specifies the address of the router to which the packet is to be sent to reach its destination.

OSPF Unicast Routing Protocol:

It is an intradomain protocol and is based on link-state routing. OSPF protocol can be understood by defining it in the area.

An area is the collection of networks, hosts, and routers all contained within an autonomous system.

However, we can divide an autonomous system into many working areas.

All networks inside an area should be connected. Routing information is flooded by routers in areas.

Special routers called area border routers are attached at the border of an area to summarize the information about the area and send it to the other areas.

A backbone area is a special area and all other areas inside an autonomous system must be connected to the backbone.

This backbone area is called the primary area and other areas are considered secondary areas.

The area identification of the backbone is zero.

BGP(Border Gateway Protocol) Unicast Routing Protocol:

Border gateway protocol is an interdomain routing protocol using path-vector routing. In BGP, any exchange of routing information between two routers takes place in a session.

A session can be defined as a connection between two BGP routers only for exchanging the routing information.

In a BGP application program, a session at the BGP level is a connection at the TCP level.

When a TCP connection is established for BGP, it can last for a long time, until something unusual happens.

That’s why BGP sessions are sometimes known as semi-permanent connections.

BGP can have two kinds of sessions – external BGP(E-BGP) and internal BGP(I-BGP) sessions.

The E-BGP session is used to exchange information between two nodes belonging to two different autonomous systems.

In contrast, the I-BGP session is used to exchange routing information between two routers inside an autonomous system.

We can understand these sessions in Fig 2 below.

external and internal BGP session
Fif 2 external and internal BGP session

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