The function of the most common components of a computer network.

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What are the 5 components of a computer network? Components Of Computer Network?

The hardware components of the computer network are the client, server, peer, transmission medium, and connecting devices and on the other hand, the software components of the computer network are protocols and operating software.

What are the functions of a computer network?

Computer networks consist of several works like connecting physical devices to make a network of devices.

But more importantly, it builds a system architecture that helps to share or transfer information from one device to another device.

A computer network is like snowflakes – no two are the same. The basic components of computer networks are shown in Fig 1 below.

All computer networks include some combination of the following – end stations, applications, and a network that will support the data traffic between the end stations.


A computer network designed three years ago to support the basic network applications of the time may have a difficult time supporting recently developed high-end applications.

Such as medical imaging and live video teleconferencing. Network designers, administrators, and managers must understand and monitor the most recent types and frequency of networked applications.

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other peripherals hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), Local operating system, and the network operating system(NOS).

SERVERS: Servers are computers that hold shared files, programs, and the network operating system. Servers provide access to network resources to all the users of the network.

There are many different kinds of servers, and one server can provide several functions, for example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, directory/security servers, fax servers, and web servers, to name a file.

Clients: Clients are computers that access and use the network and shared network resources. Client computers are the customers (users) of the network, as they request and receive services from the servers.

Transmission media: Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnected computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable. Transmission media are sometimes called channels, links, or lines.

Shared data: Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients, such as data files, printer access programs, and e-mail.

Shared printers and other peripherals: Shared printers and peripherals are hardware resources provided to the users of the network by servers. Resources provided included data files, printers, software, or any other items used by clients on the network.

Network interface card: Each computer in a network has a special expansion card called a network interface card(NIC). The NIC prepares (Formats) and sends data, receives data, and controls data flow between the computer and the network.

On the transmit side, the NIC passes frames of data onto the physical layer, Which transmits data to the physical link. On the receive side, the NIC processes bits received from the physical layer and processes the message based on its contents.

Local Operating System: A local operating system(LOS) allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Examples of LOSs are MS-DOS, PC-DOS, Unix, Macintosh, OS/2, Windows 3.11, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Linux.

Network Operating system:– The network operating system(NOS) is a program that runs on computers and servers and allows the computers to communicate over a network.

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OSI MODEL: Open System Interconnection…


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