How does TCP IP model work?

Hello Friends, In this blog post(How TCP IP model works), I am going to let you know about the TCP-IP(Transfer control protocol – Internet protocol) Model for data communication, This is a practically implemented model that is used to establish the communication between two and more devices.

In this blog post(How the TCP IP model works), we will explore What do you mean by the TCP IP model? What are the OSI model and TCP IP model? How does the TCP IP model work? TCP/IP model vs OSI model, TCP/IP model 5 layers…

…TCP/IP model layers explained, TCP/IP protocols, TCP/IP layers, and their functions, advantages, and disadvantages of the TCP/IP model.| How TCP IP model works|

Besides the OSI model, another model that is in practical use is the TCP-IP Model which is a five-layer model as shown below in fig. |How TCP IP model works|

TCP-IP Model – Layer Architecture: How TCP IP model works

Internet services generally support the TCP-IP protocol. The functions of the various layers are discussed below. |How TCP IP model works|

Physical Layer:

The TCP-IP Model covers the physical interface between data transmission devices (eg. workstation, computer) and a transmission medium or network.

This layer is concerned with specifying the characteristic of the transmission medium, the nature of signals, the data rate, and related matters.

Network Access Layer:

In the TCP-IP Model, The network access layer is concerned with the exchange of data between an end system and the network to which it is attached.

The sending computer must provide the network with the address of the destination computer, so that the network may route the data to the appropriate destination.

The sending computer may wish to invoke certain services, such as a priority that might be provided by the network.

The specific software used at this layer depends on the type of network to be used different standards have been developed for circuit switching, packet switching, local area network, and others.

This protocol is not defined and varies from host to host and network to network.

Internet Layer:

In the TCP-IP Model, All these requirements led to the choice of a packet-switching network based on a connectionless internetwork layer. This layer, called the internet layer, is the linchpin that holds the whole architecture together.

The internet layer defines an official packet format and protocol called IP(Internet protocol). The internet protocol is used at this layer to provide the routing function across multiple networks.

This protocol is implemented not only in the end system but also in the routers. A router is a processor that connects two networks and whose primary function is to relay data from one network to the other on its route from the source to the destination end system.

Transport Layer:

In the TCP-IP Model, It is designed to allow peer entities on the source and destination hosts to carry on a conversion, just as in the OSI transport layer. Two end-to-end transport protocols have been defined here.

The first one, TCP(Transmission control protocol) is a reliable connection-oriented protocol that allows a byte stream originating on one machine to be delivered without error on any other machine on the internet.

It fragments the incoming byte stream into a discrete message and passes each one on to the internet layer.

The second protocol in this layer, UDP(User datagram protocol) is an unreliable connectionless protocol for an application that does not want TCP’s sequencing or flow control and wishes to provide its own.

It is also widely used for one-shot, client-server type request-reply queries, and applications in which, promoting delivery is more important than accurate delivery.

Application Layer:

In the TCP-IP Model, On top of the transport layer is the application layer. It contains all higher-level protocols. The early ones included virtual terminals (TELNET), file transfer(FTP), and electronic mail(SMTP).

The virtual terminal protocol allows a user on one machine to log onto a distant machine and work here. The file transfer protocol provides a way to move data efficiently from one machine to another.

Electronic mail was originally just a kind of file transfer, but later a specialized protocol (SMTP) was developed for it.

Many other protocols have been added to these over the years – The domain name system(DNS) for mapping hostnames onto their network addresses, NNTP, the protocol for moving USENET news articles around, and HTTP.

Quick Reminders:

What are the 4 layers of the TCP IP model?

We have mainly four layers with the TCP/IP reference model which are Network, Internet, Transport, and Application.

What do you mean by the TCP IP model?

TCP IP model stands for transmission control protocol and IP protocol. This model is a real working model in our computer network architecture or over the internet. This model ensures communication between computer devices.

TCP is responsible for forwarding the data packets between the different devices where IP is used for logical addressing.

What are the OSI model and TCP IP model?

OSI model stands for open system interconnection and is a hypothetical model this model tells us about how the communication between the computers needs to be done. And this model is built upon the functionality of each layer that is used in the communication.

On the other hand, TCP IP stands for transmission control protocol, this model is based on the protocol which is used to make communication between the devices.

This is the real model and works with the current internet architecture. TCP is considered a practical model.

See the difference between TCP IP and OSI models?

How does the TCP IP model work?

As most of us know that the internet works with TCP/IP protocol. This TCP and IP protocol allows computers to communicate with each other via the internet. It compiles the data packet and sends them to the right destination.

advantages and disadvantages of the TCP/IP model?

TCP IP Model Advantages:

This is a real and practical model of the internet and is used to solve the problem of networking.
It allows cross-platform communication amongst heterogeneous networks.
It assigns the IP address to each computer in the network, thus all the devices can be identified easily.
It is a scalable client-server architecture so it can easily add the new network without disrupting the old network configuration.
It is an open protocol suite and not owned by any particular

TCP IP model disadvantages:

It is not optimized for small-area networks like LAN and PAN as it was designed for the wide-area network.
It is not generic in nature so it fails to represent any protocol stack other than TCP/IP. It can not describe the Bluetooth connection.
Service separation is not clear like services, interface, and protocols. So it is not suitable to describe new technology in a new network.
It does not distinguish between the data link layer and the physical layer which have very different functionality.

You can also go through a few more amazing blog links related to computer networks:

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Functions Of Each Layer In The OSI Model…
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Within this post(How TCP IP model works), we have seen the TCP IP model and its working in detail. We have also explored What do you mean by the TCP IP model? What is the model and TCP IP model? How does the TCP IP model work? TCP/IP model vs OSI model, TCP/IP model 5 layers, TCP/IP model layers explained, TCP/IP protocols, TCP/IP layers, and their functions, advantages, and disadvantages of TCP/IP model.

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